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16 Jan where do walrus live

Fish and Wildlife Service to force it to classify the Pacific Walrus as a threatened or endangered species. 3. This strategy of delayed implantation, common among pinnipeds, presumably evolved to optimize both the mating season and the birthing season, determined by ecological conditions that promote newborn survival. [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44], In 2006, the population of the Pacific walrus was estimated to be around 129,000 on the basis of an aerial census combined with satellite tracking. Atlantic walruses inhabit coastal areas from northeastern Canada to Greenland, while Pacific walruses inhabit the northern seas off Russia and Alaska, … The tusks of a full grown walrus can weigh 12 pounds. Threats and Status: The walrus lives on the edge of the Arctic ice sheet and is often hunted by polar bears and killer whales (orcas). [49] The Atlantic walrus once ranged south to Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and as late as the 18th century was found in large numbers in the Greater Gulf of St. Lawrence region, sometimes in colonies of up to 7,000 to 8,000 individuals. Perhaps some individuals can live up to 40 and even 50 years. [91], 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T15106A45228501.en, "Use of spectral analysis to test hypotheses on the origin of pinnipeds", "Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset", 10.1671/0272-4634(2006)26[411:ANMOMC]2.0.CO;2, "State of Circumpolar Walrus Populations : Odobenus rosmarus", "A new tuskless walrus from the Miocene of Orange County, California, with comments on the diversity and taxonomy of odobenids". Perhaps its best-known appearance is in Lewis Carroll's whimsical poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter" that appears in his 1871 book Through the Looking-Glass. The walrus palate is uniquely vaulted, enabling effective suction. There is no hierarchy in the herd, all members of the herd are less equal in their rights. [according to whom? [4] Walruses live mostly in shallow waters above the continental shelves, spending significant amounts of their lives on the sea ice looking for benthic bivalve mollusks to eat. An occasional male of the Pacific subspecies far exceeds normal dimensions. As you read these walrus facts you can be confident that your knowledge about them is going to continue to expand. Walruses spend one third of their time on land or pack ice and the other two thirds in the ocean. According to Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, European hunters and Arctic explorers found walrus meat not particularly tasty, and only ate it in case of necessity; however walrus tongue was a delicacy. Walruses maintain such a high body weight because of the blubber stored underneath their skin. [4] A 28,000-year-old fossil walrus was dredged up from the bottom of San Francisco Bay, indicating that Pacific walruses ranged that far south during the last Ice Age. The scientific name for the walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, is Latin for “tooth walking sea-horse.” Record Holder. If another animal decided to make a meal of a napping walrus, the water would actually be the toothy beast's best chance of escape. These organisms have flabby bodies, which often spot pink or brown hue, with short fur lining most of their bodies except for their fins. [85], Currently, two of the three walrus subspecies are listed as "least-concern" by the IUCN, while the third is "data deficient". Due to the reduction in abundance, the walrus area now exploded into several unconnected sites. After a … The range of walruses is circumpolar, that is, it encloses the North Pole. They can remain submerged for as long as half an hour. Most of the pacific walruses live on and between the northern coast of eastern Siberia and the northern shore of Alaska. The population of walruses dropped rapidly all around the Arctic region. Where do walruses live? The walrus has played a prominent role in the cultures of many indigenous Arctic peoples, who have hunted the walrus for its meat, fat, skin, tusks, and bone. [78], Hunter sitting on dozens of walruses killed for their tusks, 1911, Walrus tusk scrimshaw made by Chukchi artisans depicting polar bears attacking walruses, on display in the Magadan Regional Museum, Magadan, Russia, Trained walrus in captivity at Marineland, Walrus being fed at Skansen in Stockholm, Sweden, 1908, Walrus hunts are regulated by resource managers in Russia, the United States, Canada, and Denmark, and representatives of the respective hunting communities. Walruses Are Related to Seals and Sea Lions. Where do Walruses Live? Indeed, most marine biologists think they use their massive chompers just to eat clams and other shellfish. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae and genus Odobenus. With sea ice receding year after year, he says, the walruses … A lone mountain walrus makes the trek across the Nevada desert. [citation needed]. Male Pacific walrus are slightly larger, with longer tusks. They winter over in the Bering Sea along the eastern coast of Siberia south to the northern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, and along the southern coast of Alaska. Despite being wel… [59] However, it prefers benthic bivalve mollusks, especially clams, for which it forages by grazing along the sea bottom, searching and identifying prey with its sensitive vibrissae and clearing the murky bottoms with jets of water and active flipper movements. [66][67], Due to its great size and tusks, the walrus has only two natural predators: the killer whale (orca) and the polar bear. [27] The males reach sexual maturity as early as seven years, but do not typically mate until fully developed at around 15 years of age. An estimated four to seven thousand Pacific walruses are harvested in Alaska and in Russia, including a significant portion (about 42%) of struck and lost animals. [69] The bears also isolate walruses when they overwinter and are unable to escape a charging bear due to inaccessible diving holes in the ice. This species is subdivided into two subspecies: the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus), which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens), which lives in the Pacific Ocean. [24], Gestation lasts 15 to 16 months. [24][33], The majority of the population of the Pacific walrus spends its summers north of the Bering Strait in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean along the northern coast of eastern Siberia, around Wrangel Island, in the Beaufort Sea along the northern shore of Alaska south to Unimak Island,[34] and in the waters between those locations. Several place names in Iceland, Greenland and Norway may originate from walrus sites: Hvalfjord, Hvallatrar and Hvalsnes to name some, all being typical walrus breeding grounds. Due to the reduction in abundance, the walrus area now exploded into several unconnected sites. They can be found in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Arctic Ocean. Name Game. What are walrus mating rituals like? There are eight hypothetical subpopulations of Atlantic walruses, based largely on their geographical distribution and movements: five west of Greenland and three east of Greenland. Walruses are ‘Arctic Circles creatures, considered to be one of the largest fin-footed, semi-aquatic animals, sea mammals in particular.. Killer whales regularly attack walruses, although walruses are believed to have successfully defended themselves via counterattack against the larger cetacean. [23] Tusks are slightly longer and thicker among males, which use them for fighting, dominance and display; the strongest males with the largest tusks typically dominate social groups. This species is subdivided into two subspecies:[2] the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus), which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens), which lives in the Pacific Ocean. [82] Reduced coastal sea ice has also been implicated in the increase of stampeding deaths crowding the shorelines of the Chukchi Sea between eastern Russia and western Alaska. [clarification needed] According to various legends, the tusks are formed either by the trails of mucus from the weeping girl or her long braids. O. rosmarus divergens [74] Commercial walrus harvesting is now outlawed throughout its range, although Chukchi, Yupik and Inuit peoples[75] are permitted to kill small numbers towards the end of each summer. [28] The females join them and copulate in the water. [26] The vibrissae are attached to muscles and are supplied with blood and nerves, making them highly sensitive organs capable of differentiating shapes 3 mm (1⁄8 in) thick and 2 mm (3⁄32 in) wide. David Attenborough, the series' narrator, blames the incident on changes to the Arctic ecosystem that walruses inhabit. [55] Global trade in walrus ivory is restricted according to a CITES Appendix 3 listing. During the 19th century and the early 20th century, walruses were widely hunted and killed for their blubber, walrus ivory, and meat. [4] Male Atlantic walrus weigh an average of 900 kg (2,000 lb). They appear awkward on land but graceful in the water where they feel most comfortable. Pacific walrus can be difficult or expensive to see in the wild, with only a few key locations in Alaska where viewing is realistic or practical. I Am the Walrus The walrus has many adaptations that enable it to live in the harsh, frigid conditions near the Arctic Circle. There can be 400 to 700 vibrissae in 13 to 15 rows reaching 30 cm (12 in) in length, though in the wild they are often worn to much shorter lengths due to constant use in foraging. The name of the walrus means “tooth walker”. The walrus population in Greenland's Thule district may be stable but the population off central west Greenland remains depleted. [87] This myth is possibly related to the Chukchi myth of the old walrus-headed woman who rules the bottom of the sea, who is in turn linked to the Inuit goddess Sedna. Although Carroll accurately portrays the biological walrus's appetite for bivalve mollusks, oysters, primarily nearshore and intertidal inhabitants, these organisms in fact comprise an insignificant portion of its diet in captivity. Its second part has also been hypothesized to come from the Old Norse word for "horse". The largest single herd of walrus in Canada has about 5,000 members. Walrus, (Odobenus rosmarus), also called morse, huge, seal-like mammal found in Arctic seas. The walrus is a large pinniped with upper canine teeth that grow into long tusks. Thus they tend to live relatively long life spans of around 30 years. They weigh 45 to 75 kg (99 to 165 lb) at birth and are able to swim. [54], The isolated population of Laptev Sea walruses is confined year-round to the central and western regions of the Laptev Sea, the eastmost regions of the Kara Sea, and the westmost regions of the East Siberian Sea. Tolkien[5] to derive from a Germanic language, and it has been attributed largely to either the Dutch language or Old Norse. [62] There have been isolated observations of walruses preying on seals up to the size of a 200 kg (440 lb) bearded seal. The extraocular muscles of the walrus are well-developed. These are elongated canines, which are present in both male and female walruses and can reach a length of 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and weigh up to 5.4 kg (12 lb). ][citation needed] Compare морж (morž) in Russian, mursu in Finnish, morša in Northern Saami, and morse in French. The current population of these walruses has been estimated to be between 5,000 and 10,000. It is the sole surviving member of the family Odobenidae, one of three lineages in the suborder Pinnipedia along with true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae). Walruses are found throughout the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans where they inhabit ice floes and rocky coastlines, along with spending a great deal of time in the freezing cold water. Early aerial censuses of Pacific walrus conducted at five-year intervals between 1975 and 1985 estimated populations of above 220,000 in each of the three surveys. During their lifetimes, male and female walruses live apart, in separate herds. Its first part is thought to derive from a word such as Dutch walvis "whale". [50] This population was nearly eradicated by commercial harvest; their current numbers, though difficult to estimate, probably remain below 20,000. Armed with its ivory tusks, walruses have been known to fatally injure polar bears in battles if the latter follows the other into the water, where the bear is at a disadvantage. Walruses are widely distributed but occupy a relatively narrow ecological niche, requiring areas of shallow water. For example, in a Chukchi version of the widespread myth of the Raven, in which Raven recovers the sun and the moon from an evil spirit by seducing his daughter, the angry father throws the daughter from a high cliff and, as she drops into the water, she turns into a walrus – possibly the original walrus. Its skin is highly wrinkled and thick, up to 10 cm (4 in) around the neck and shoulders of males. [17] The Atlantic subspecies weighs about 10–20% less than the Pacific subspecies. Laptev walruses live in the Laptev Sea of Russia. [4] They rut from January through April, decreasing their food intake dramatically. [65] Walruses may occasionally prey on ice-entrapped narwhals and scavenge on whale carcasses but there is little evidence to prove this. [24], The walrus has an air sac under its throat which acts like a flotation bubble and allows it to bob vertically in the water and sleep. [90], Another appearance of the walrus in literature is in the story "The White Seal" in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, where it is the "old Sea Vitch—the big, ugly, bloated, pimpled, fat-necked, long-tusked walrus of the North Pacific, who has no manners except when he is asleep". [4] They are not particularly deep divers compared to other pinnipeds; their deepest recorded dives are around 80 m (260 ft). [55], Even though walruses can dive to depths beyond 500 meters, they spend most of their time in shallow waters (and the nearby ice floes) hunting for food. Adult walrus are characterised by prominent tusks and whiskers, and their considerable bulk: adult males in the Pacific can weigh more than 2,000 kilograms (4,400 pounds)[3] and, among pinnipeds, are exceeded in size only by the two species of elephant seals. [63][64] Rarely, incidents of walruses preying on seabirds, particularly the Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), have been documented. The maximal number of teeth is 38 with dentition formula:, but over half of the teeth are rudimentary and occur with less than 50% frequency, such that a typical dentition includes only 18 teeth[4], Surrounding the tusks is a broad mat of stiff bristles ("mystacial vibrissae"), giving the walrus a characteristic whiskered appearance. Where do walruses live? The Russian Atlantic and Laptev Sea populations are classified as Category 2 (decreasing) and Category 3 (rare) in the Russian Red Book. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the walrus was heavily exploited by American and European sealers and whalers, leading to the near-extirpation of the Atlantic subspecies. [76] The meat, often preserved, is an important winter nutrition source; the flippers are fermented and stored as a delicacy until spring; tusks and bone were historically used for tools, as well as material for handicrafts; the oil was rendered for warmth and light; the tough hide made rope and house and boat coverings; and the intestines and gut linings made waterproof parkas. Walruses are relatively long-lived, social animals, and they are considered to be a "keystone species" in the Arctic marine regions. [30] This lower fat content in turn causes a slower growth rate among calves and a longer nursing investment for their mothers. The range of walruses is circumpolar, that is, it encloses the North Pole. The blubber layer beneath is up to 15 cm (6 in) thick. The recorded largest tusks are just over 30 inches and 37 inches long respectively. Seals are classified with the pinniped group (seals, sea lions, walrus). However, vision in this species appears to be more suited for short-range. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae and genus Odobenus. During the winter months when the ice is at its thickest, Walruses tend to prefer areas of thinner ice that they can easily break through to the surface from the water underneath. descended from a single ancestor, or diphyletic, recent genetic evidence suggests all three descended from a caniform ancestor most closely related to modern bears. The archaic English word for walrus—morse—is widely thought to have come from the Slavic languages,[9] which in turn borrowed it from Finno-Ugric languages. [89], The "walrus" in the cryptic Beatles song "I Am the Walrus" is a reference to the Lewis Carroll poem. Even in the mating season, they do not have fatal battles, adults do not squeeze the young as it happens in other species. [25] While the dentition of walruses is highly variable, they generally have relatively few teeth other than the tusks. Walruses are pinnipeds, which classifies them in … They live in groups of 10-20 individuals, but can form rookeries up to 100-3000 individuals (more often such large groups are created by females).

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